NRDA & Ecosystem Services Accounting
Windward staff have been advising clients on natural resource damage assessment (NRDA)- and ecosystem services accounting-related issues for more than 20 years. The focus of this work has been on baseline determination, injury determination and quantification, establishment of causation, apportionment of injury, and compensatory restoration planning. In particular, our experience in working with the strengths and limitations of the NRDA process allows us to provide realistic assessments of the liability issues associated with each situation. Windward has taken the lead in developing compensatory restoration options by using advanced Habitat Equivalency Analysis (HEA) modeling to identify optimal restoration projects based on restoration credits and cost efficiency. For these efforts, Windward staff have prepared pre-assessment screens, developed comprehensive damage assessment plans, prepared detailed injury assessment and quantification plans, performed field and laboratory injury determination studies, developed case strategies, and provided negotiation and settlement support. This range of experience has enabled Windward staff to become experts in applying the natural resource science, economic, and legal principles that, when combined, characterize the NRDA process.