Publications and Presentations

Key Publications and Presentations


  • Gibbs A, Johns M. 2023. Process for developing a targeted and climate resilient natural resource damage restoration project. Windward Environmental LLC, Seattle, WA.
  • DeForest DK, Ryan AC, Tear LM, Brix KV. 2023. Comparison of multiple linear regression and biotic ligand models for predicting acute and chronic zinc toxicity to freshwater organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 42(2):393-413.


  • Baker JA, Matheson G, Gilron G, DeForest DF. 2022. Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of nitrite to a suite of aquatic organisms in support of the derivation of a chronic environmental water quality benchmark. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 83(1):1-12.
  • Church B, Detering C. 2022. RFPM: floating percentile model [online]. Updated November 14, 2022. Available from:
  • Church BG, Detering C, Toll JE. 2022. Evaluating sensitivity and variability of the floating percentile model for sediment quality benchmark development. Windward Environmental LLC, Seattle, WA.
  • Church BG, Toll J, Tobiason S, White A. 2022. Characterization of ambient polychlorinated biphenyl background conditions in surface waters of the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico. Integr Environ Assess Manag.
  • DeForest DK, Toll JE, Judd NL, Shaw A, McPeek K, Tobiason K, Santore RC. 2022. Sediment toxicity data and excess simultaneously extracted metals from field-collected samples: comparison to United States Environmental Protection Agency benchmarks. Integr Environ Assess Manag 18(1):174-186.
  • Detering C, Church B, Toll J. 2022. Redevelopment and improvement of the floating percentile model in the r statistical environment for the calculation of site-specific sediment quality benchmarks. SETAC North America, Pittsburgh, PA, November 13-17, 2022.
  • Judd NL, Toll JE, McPeek K, Baldwin A, Bergquist B, Tobiason K, DeForest DK, Santore RC. 2022. Collection and use of porewater data from sediment bioassay studies for understanding exposure to bioavailable metals. Integr Environ Assess Manag 18(5):1324-1334.
  • Santore RC, Toll JE, DeForest DK, Croteau K, Shaw A, Bergquist B, McPeek K, Tobiason K, Judd NL. 2022. Refining our understanding of metal bioavailability in sediments using information from porewater: application of a multi-metal biotic ligand model as an extension of the equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmarks Integr Environ Assess Manag 18(5):1335-1347.


  • Brix KV, Baker J, Morris W, Ferry K, Pettem C, Elphick J, Tear LM, Napier R, Adzic M, DeForest DK. 2021. Effects of maternally transferred egg selenium on embryo-larval survival, growth and development in Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus). Environ Toxicol Chem 40(2):380-389.
  • Brix KV, Tear L, Santore RC, Croteau K, DeForest DK. 2021. Comparative performance of multiple linear regression and biotic ligand models for estimating the bioavailability of copper in freshwater. Environ Toxicol 40(6):1649-1661.
  • Croteau K, Ryan A, Santore R, DeForest D, Schlekat C, Middleton E, Garman E. 2021. Comparison of multiple linear regression and biotic ligand models to predict the toxicity of nickel to aquatic freshwater organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 40(8):2189-2205.
  • Santore RC, Croteau K, Ryan AC, Schlekat C, Middleton E, Garman E. 2021. A review of water quality factors that affect nickel bioavailability to aquatic organisms: Refinement of the biotic ligand model for nickel in acute and chronic exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 40(8):2121-2134.


  • DeForest D, Brix K, Cardwell A, Stubblefield W, Adams W. 2020. Updated multiple linear regression models for chronic Al toxicity. Environ Toxicol 39(9):1724-1736.
  • Brix KV, DeForest DK, Tear L, Peijnenburg W, Peters A, Middleton ET, Erickson R. 2020. Development of empirical bioavailability models for metals. Environ Toxicol Chem 39(1):85-100.
  • Toll J. 2020. The modern era of environmental regulation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 16(6):807-808.
  • Toll J, DeForest D, Santore RC, Judd N. 2020. Sediment benchmarks based on acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals – When is organic carbon normalization meaningful? Integr Environ Assess Manag 15:151-152.


  • Croteau KSantore RC, DeForest DK, Baken S. 2019. An analysis of potential bias in the sensitivity of toxicity data used to construct sensitivity distributions for copper. Integr Environ Assess Manag 15(3):437-447.
  • Ryan AC, Santore RC, Tobiason S, WoldeGabriel G, Groffman AR. 2019. Total recoverable aluminum: not totally relevant for water quality standards. Integr Environ Assess Manag 15(6):974-987.
  • Toll J. 2019. Expertise, integrity, public trust and professionalism in environmental risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 15(5):672-673.


  • Adams WJ, Cardwell AS, DeForest DK, Gensemer RW, Santore RC, Wang N, Nordheim E. 2018. Aluminum bioavailability and toxicity to aquatic organisms: introduction to the special section. Environ Toxicol Chem 37(1):34-35.
  • Cardwell AS, Adams WJ, Gensemer RW, Nordheim E, Santore RC, Ryan AC, Stubblefield WA. 2018. Chronic toxicity of aluminum, at a pH of 6, to freshwater organisms: empirical data for the development of international regulatory standards/criteria. Environ Toxicol Chem 37(7):36-48.
  • DeForest DK, Brix KV, Tear LM, Adams WJ. 2018. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines. Environ Toxicol Chem 37(1):80-90.
  • Gensemer RW, Gondek JC, Rodriquez PH, Arbildua JJ, Stubblefield WA, Cardwell AS, Santore RC, Ryan AC, Adams WJ, Nordheim E. 2018. Evaluating the effects of pH, hardness, and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of aluminum to freshwater aquatic organisms under circumneutral conditions. Environ Toxicol Chem 37(1):49-60.
  • Ryan A, Santore R, Delos C. 2018. Application of a fixed monitoring benchmark approach to evaluate attainment of time-variable water quality criteria: copper BLM as a case study. Integr Environ Assess Manag.
  • Santore RC, Ryan AC, Kroglund F, Rodriguez P, Stubblefield W, Cardwell A, Adams W, Nordheim E. 2018. Development and application of a biotic ligand model for predicting the chronic toxicity of dissolved and precipitated aluminum to aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 37(7):70-79.


  • Brix KV, DeForest DK, Tear LM, Grosell M, Adams WJ. 2017. Use of multiple linear regression models for setting water quality criteria for copper: a complementary approach to the biotic ligand model. Environ Sci Tech 51:5182-5192.
  • Church B, van Sprang P, Chowdhury M, DeForest D. 2017. Updated species sensitivity distribution evaluations for acute and chronic lead toxicity to saltwater aquatic life. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(11):2974-2980.
  • DeForest DK, Brix KV, Elphick JR, Rickwood CJ, deBruyn AMH, Tear LM, Gilron G, Hughes SA, Adams WJ. 2017. Lentic, lotic, and sulfate-dependent waterborne selenium screening guidelines for freshwater systems. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(9):2503-2513.
  • DeForest D, Santore R, Ryan A, Church B, Chowdhury M, Brix K. 2017. Development of biotic ligand model-based freshwater aquatic life criteria for lead following US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Environ Toxicol Chem 36(11):2965-2973
  • Johns AF, Graham SE, Harris MJ, Markiewicz AJ, Stinson JM, Landis WG. 2017. Using the Bayesian network relative risk model risk assessment process to evaluate management alternatives for the South River and upper Shenandoah River, Virginia. Integr Environ Assess Manag 13(1):100-114.
  • Landis WG, Ayre KK, Johns AF, Summers HM, Stinson J, Harris MJ, Herring CE, Markiewicz AJ. 2017. The multiple stressor ecological risk assessment for the mercury‐contaminated South River and upper Shenandoah River using the Bayesian network‐relative risk model. Integr Environ Assess Manag 13(1):85-99.
  • Landis WG, Markiewicz AJ, Ayre KK, Johns AF, Harris MJ, Stinson JM, Summers HM. 2017. A general risk-based adaptive management scheme incorporating the Bayesian network relative risk model with the South River, Virginia, as case study. Integr Environ Assess Manag 13(1):115-126.
  • Replinger S, Katka S, Toll J, Church B, Saban L. 2017. Recommendations for the derivation and use of biota-sediment bioaccumulation models for carcinogenic PAHs. Integr Environ Assess Manage.
  • Steinman AD, Cardinale BJ, Munns WR, Jr, Ogdahl ME, Allan JD, Angadi T, Bartlett S, Brauman K, Byappanahalli M, Doss M, Dupont D, Johns A, Kashian D, Lupi F, McIntyre P, Miller T, Moore M, Muenich RL, Poudel R, Price J, Provencher B, Rea A, Read J, Renzetti S, Sohngen B, Washburn E. 2017. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. J Great Lakes Res 43:161-168.


  • DeForest DK, Pargee S, Claytor C, Canton SP, Brix KV. 2016. Biokinetic food chain modeling of waterborne selenium pulses into aquatic food chains: implications for water quality criteria. Integr Environ Assess Manag 12(2):230-246.


  • Adams WJ, DeForest, D, Tear LM, Payne K, Brix KV. 2015. Long-term monitoring of arsenic, copper, selenium, and other elements in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) surface water, brine shrimp, and brine flies. Environ Monit Assess 187(3):Article 118.
  • DeForest D, Pargee S, Claytor C, Canton SP and Brix KV. 2015. Biokinetic food chain modeling of waterborne selenium pulses into aquatic food chains: Implications for water quality criteria. Integr Environ Assess Manag. doi:10.1002/ieam.1696.
  • Santore RC, Ryan, AC. 2015. Development and application of a multimetal multibiotic ligand model for assessing aquatic toxicity of metal mixtures. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34: 777–787.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D, Ryan A, Santore R, Matzke A, McConaghie J. 2016. Water Quality Criteria based on the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM): State Adoptions, Options and Examples. Platform presentation at the Pacifi c Northwest Clean Water Association annual conference, Bend, OR. October 18, 2016.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D, Santore R, Ryan A, Lewis N, Church B, and Toll J. 2015. Using the Fixed Monitoring Benchmark Approach to Derive BLM-Based Freshwater Copper Criteria. Platform presentation at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) annual meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. November 4, 2015.
  • Vardy DW, Doering JA, Santore R, Ryan A, Giesy JP, Hecker M. 2015. Assessment of Columbia River sediment toxicity to white sturgeon: Concentrations of metals in sediment, pore water and overlying water. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5(263):doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000263
  • Vardy DW, Doering JA, Santore R, Ryan A, Giesy JP, Hecker M. 2015. Toxicity of metals associated with sediments from the Columbia River to early life stages of white sturgeon. J Environ Anal Toxicol 5(262):doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000262.


  • Bosse C, Rosen G, Colvin M, Earley P, Santore R, Rivera-Duarte I. 2014. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA. Mar Pollut Bull 85(1):225-234.
  • Cooper CA, Tait T, Gray H, Cimprich G, Santore R, McGeer JC. 2014. Influence of salinity and dissolved organic carbon on acute Cu toxicity to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. Environ Sci Tech 48(2):1213-1221.
  • DeForest D, Meyer JS. 2015. Critical review: toxicity of dietborne metals to aquatic organisms. Crit Rev Environ Sci Tech 45(11):1176-1241.
  • DeForest D, Meyer JS, Gensemer RW, Gorsuch J, Adams WJ. 2014. Protectiveness of copper aquatic life criteria/guidelines against olfactory impairment in fish: An international comparison. Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, February 23-26, 2014. ***SME 2014 Outstanding Paper award recipient***
  • Esbaugh AJ, Mager EM, Brix KV, Santore R, Grosell M. 2014. Implications of pH manipulation methods for metal toxicity: not all acidic environments are created equal. Aqua Tox 130-131:27-30.
  • Farley KJ, Meyer JS, Balistieri LS, De Schamphelaere KAC, Iwasaki Y, Janssen CR, Kamo M, Lofts S, Mebane CA, Naito W, Ryan AC, Santore RC, Tipping E. Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project: 2. Comparison of four modeling approaches. Environ Toxicol Chem 34(4):741-753.
  • Judd N, Tear L, Toll J. 2014. From sediment to tissue and tissue to sediment: an evaluation of statistical bioaccumulation models. Integr Environ Assess Manag 10(1):102-113.
  • Luxon M, Toll J, Hanson C. 2014. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor. Integr Environ Assess Manag 10(1):60-68.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D, Lewis N, Gensemer R. 2014. Potential Water Quality Criteria for Copper in Oregon State Fresh Waters based on the Biotic Ligand Model. Platform presentation at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) annual meeting, Vancouver British Columbia, Canada. November 12, 2014.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D, Lewis N, Groffman A, White A. 2014. Comparison of Hardness-Based and Biotic Ligand Model Water Quality Criteria for Copper and Zing in Streams near Los Alamos National Laboratory. Poster presentation at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) annual meeting, Vancouver British Columbia, Canada. November 12, 2014.
  • Vardy DW, Santore R, Ryan A, Giesy JP, Hecker M. 2014. Acute toxicity of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in laboratory and Columbia River water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 21(13):8176-8187.


  • Cardwell RD, DeForest D, Brix KV, Adams WJ. 2013. Do Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn biomagnify in aquatic ecosystems? Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 226:101-122.
  • DeForest D, Schlekat CE. 2013. Species sensitivity distribution evaluation for chronic nickel toxicity to marine organisms. Integr Environ Assess Manag 9(4):580-589.
  • DeForest D, Reash RJ, Toll J. 2013. Comment on “Wildlife and the coal waste policy debate: proposed rules for coal waste disposal ignore lessons from 45 years of wildlife poisoning”. Environ Sci Tech 47(19):11363-11364.
  • Meyer, JS, DeForest D, Gensemer, RW, Gorsuch, JW, Adams WJ. 2013. Aquatic life criteria are protective against copper-caused impairment of olfaction in salmonid fishes. Proceedings of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration (SME) Annual Meeting, Denver, CO. February 24-27.
  • Munley KM, Brix KV, Panlilio J, DeForest D, Grosell M. 2013. Growth inhibition in early life-stage tests predicts full life-cycle toxicity effects of lead in the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Aqua Tox, 128-129:60-66.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D. 2013. The biotic ligand model and its use in setting water quality criteria for metals. Invited speaker at the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), West Coast Regional Meeting. Vancouver, WA. October 1, 2013.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D. 2013. Implementing Copper BLM Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria: Considerations for the State of Oregon. Invited speaker to the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality. April 29, 2013.
  • Toll J, Garber K, DeForest D, Brattin W. 2012. Assessing population-level effects of zinc exposure to brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Arkansas River at Leadville, Colorado. Integr Environ Assess Manag 9(1):50-62. ***IEAM Best Paper Honorable Mention recipient***


  • DeForest D, Gilron G, Armstrong SA, Robertson EL. 2012. Species sensitivity distribution evaluation for selenium in fish eggs: considerations for development of a Canadian tissue-based guideline. Integr Environ Assess Manag 8(1):6-12.
  • DeForest D, Van Genderen, EJ. 2012. Application of U.S. EPA guidelines in a bioavailability-based assessment of ambient water quality criteria for zinc in freshwater. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 31: 1264–1272
  • Meyer JS, Adams WJ, DeForest D, Dwyer RL, Gensemer RW, Gorsuch JW, Johnston RK, Santore R, Van Genderen E. 2012. Water chemistry matters in metal-toxicity papers. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(4):689-90.
  • Redman A, Santore R. 2012. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(8):1774-1780.
  • Toll J. 2012. Accelerating progress at contaminated sediment sites. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 8(4):578-579.
  • Velleux M, Redman A, Paquin P, Santore R, England JF, Julien PY. 2012. Exposure assessment framework for antimicrobial copper use in urbanized areas. Environ Sci Tech46(12):6723-32.


  • Adams W, Blust R, Borgmann U, Brix K, DeForest D, Green A, McGeer J, Meyer J, Paquin P, Rainbow P, Wood C. 2011. Utility of tissue residues for predicting effects of metals on aquatic organisms. Integr Environ Assess Manage 7(1):75-98.
  • Brix KV, DeForest D, Adams WJ. 2011. The sensitivity of aquatic insects to divalent metals: A comparative analysis of laboratory and field data. Sci Tot Envon 409:4187-4197.
  • DeForest D, Adams WJ. 2011. Selenium accumulation and toxicity in freshwater fishes. n: Beyer WN, Meador JP, eds, Environmental contaminants in biota: Interpreting tissue concentrations. 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 193-229.
  • DeForest D, Gensemer RW, Van Genderen EJ, Gorsuch JW. 2011. Protectiveness of water quality criteria for copper  in western United States waters relative to predicted olfactory responses in juvenile Pacific salmon. Integr Environ Assess Manage 7(3):336-347.
  • DeForest D, Meyer J, Adams B, Dwyer B, Gensemer B, Gorsuch J, Van Genderen E. 2011. Importance of water chemistry in evaluating the olfactory effects of copper in salmonids. SETAC Globe 12(9).
  • DeForest D, Meyer JS, Gensemer RW, Shephard BK, Adams WJ, Dwyer RL, Gorsuch JW, Van Genderen EJ. 2011. Learned discourse: Are ambient water quality criteria for copper protective of olfactory impairment in fish? Integr Environ Assess Manage 7(1):145-146.
  • MacDonald DD, Moore D, Ingersoll CG, Smorong DE, Carr RS, Gouguet R, Charters D, Wilson D, Harris T, Rauscher J, Roddy S, Meyer J. 2011. Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 1. Overview and problem formulation. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61(1):1-13.
  • MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, Smorong DE, Lindskoog R, Wang N, Severn C, Gouguet R, Meyer J, Field J. 2011. Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 2. An evaluation of the predictive ability of effects-based sediment quality guidelines. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61(1):14-28.
  • MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG, Kemble N, Smorong DE, Lindskoog R, Gaston G, Sanger D, Carr RS, Biedenbach J, Gouguet R, Kern J, Shortelle A, Field J, Meyer J. 2011. Baseline ecological risk assessment of the Calcasieu Estuary, Louisiana: 3. An evaluation of the risks to benthic invertebrates associated with exposure to contaminated sediments. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61(1):29-58.
  • Paquin PR, Redman AD, Ryan AC, Santore R. 2011. Modeling the Physiology and Toxicology of Metals. In: CM Wood, AP Farrell, and CJ Brauner, eds, Fish Physiology, Vol 31a – Metals: Homeostasis and Toxicology of Essential Metals. Elsevier.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest D. 2011. Metals Criteria-Status and Update Opportunities for Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn in Washington State including Salmonid Olfactory BLM for Copper. Invited speaker at APWA Stormwater Manager’s Committee Meeting, Seattle, WA. January 2011.
  • Wang N, Mebane CA, Kunz JL, Ingersoll CG, Brumbaugh WG, Santore R, Gorsuch JW, Arnold WR. 2011. Influence of dissolved organic carbon on toxicity of copper to a unionid mussel (Villosa iris) and a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) in acute and chronic water exposures. Environ Toxicol Chem 30(9):2115-25.


  • Anderson HB, Caldwell RS, Toll J, Do T, Saban L. 2010. Sensitivity of lamprey ammocoetes to six chemicals. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 59:622-631.
  • Brix KV, Keithly J, Santore RC, DeForest D, Tobiason S. 2010. Ecological risk assessment of zinc from stormwater runoff to an aquatic ecosystem. Sci Tot Environ 408:1824-1832.
  • Janz DM, DeForest D, Brooks ML, Chapman PM, Gilron G, Hoff D, Hopkins WA, McIntyre DO, Mebane CA, Palace VP, Skorupa JP, Wayland M. 2010. Selenium toxicity to aquatic organisms. In: Chapman PM, Adams WJ, Brooks ML, Delos CG, Luoma SN, Maher WA, Ohlendorf HM, Presser TS, Shaw DP, eds, Ecological assessment of selenium in the aquatic environment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 141-231.


  • Gouguet RG, Charters DW, Champagne LF, Davis M, Desvouges W, Durda JL, Hyatt WH, Jr, Jacobson R, Kapustka L, Longoria RM. 2009. Effective coordination and cooperation between ecological risk assessments and natural resource damage assessments: a new synthesis. Integr Environ Assess Mgmt 5(4):523-534.
  • Munns, RM, Roger CH, Adams WJ, Clements WH, Cramer MA, Curry M, DiPinto LM, Johns DM, Seiler R, Williams LL, Young D. 2009. Translating ecological risk to ecosystem service loss. Integr Environ Assess and Manag 5(4), pp 500-514.
  • Stahl J, Gouguet R, Charters D, Clements WH, Gala W, Haddad R, Helm R, Landis WG, Maki AW, Munns J, W R, Young DA. 2009. The nexus between ecological risk assessment and natural resource damage assessment under CERCLA: introduction to a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry technical workshop. Integr Environ Assess Mgmt 5(4):496-499.
  • Wang N, Mebane CA, Kunz JL, Ingersoll CG, May TW, Arnold WR, Santore R, Augspurger T, Dwyer J, Barnhart MC. 2009. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in natural and reconstituted waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 28(11):2367-77.


  • Brix KV, DeForest D. 2008. Selenium. In: Gensemer RW, Meyerhoff RD, Ramage KJ, Curely EF, eds, Relevance of Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ephemeral and Effluent-Dependent Watercourses of the Arid Western United States. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 123-172.
  • Chadwick DB, Rivera-Duarte I, Wang PF, Santore R, Ryan A, Paquin PR, Hafner SD, Choi W. 2008. Demonstration of an integrated compliance model for predicting copper fate and effects in DoD harbors. Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Project ER-0523. Technical Report 1973. SSC Pacific, San Diego, CA.
  • Deforest D, Adams WJ, Chapman PM. 2008. Learned discourse: What is an appropriate level of protection? An example considering selenium exposures by aquatic birds. Integr Environ Assess Manag (7)1:145-146.
  • DeForest D, Paquin PR, Matthew R, Brix KV. 2008. Diazinon. In: Gensemer RW, Meyerhoff RD, Ramage KJ, Curely EF, eds, Relevance of Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ephemeral and Effluent-Dependent Watercourses of the Arid Western United States. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 173-200.
  • Rosen G, Rivera-Duarte I, hadwick DB, Ryan A, Santore R, Paquin PR. 2008. Critical tissue copper residues for marine bivalve (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and echinoderm (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryonic development: conceptual, regulatory and environmental implications. Mar Environ Res 66(3):327-336.
  • Stahl R, Gouguet R, Ammann M, DeSantis A, Liu J. 2008. Prospective environmental restoration/restoration up front: a concept for an incentive-based program to increase restoration planning and implementation in the United States. Integr Environ Assess and Manag. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 5–13.


  • DeForest D, Brix KV, Adams WJ. 2007. assessing metal bioaccumulation in aquatic environments: The inverse relationship between bioaccumulation factors, trophic transfer factors, and exposure concentration. Aqua Tox 84:236-246.
  • Deshler, T, Godtfredsen K, Johns M. 2007. Key technical elements for conducting remedial investigations at Superfund site. American Bar Association. Section of Environment, Energy, and Resources: Site Remediation Committee Newsletter, 3(1):2-5. January 2007.
  • Van Genderen E, Gensemer R, Smith C, Santore R, Ryan A. 2007. Evaluation of the biotic ligand model relative to other site-specific criteria derivation methods for copper in surface waters with elevated hardness. Aqua Tox 84(2):279-291.


  • Gensemer RW, DeForest D, Stenhouse AJ, Higgins CJ, Cardwell RD. 2006. Aquatic toxicity of cyanide. In: Dzombak DA, Ghosh RJ, Wong-Chong GM, eds, Cyanide in Water and Soil: Chemistry, Risk, and Management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 251-285.


  • Adams WJ, Green AS, Ahlf W, Brown SS, Burton GA, Jr, Chadwick B, Crane M, Gouguet R, Ho KT, Hogstrand C, Reynoldson TB, Ringwood AH, Savitz JD, Sibley PK. 2005. Using Sediment Assessment Tools and a Weight-of-Evidence Approach. In: Wenning RJ, Batley GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW, eds, Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments: Proceedings from the Pellston Workshop on Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. August 18-22, 2002, Fairmont, MT, USA. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL. Pp 163-225.
  • Adams WJ, Stewart AR, Kidd DA, Brix KV, DeForest D. 2005. Appendix E: Case histories of dietborne exposure to mercury and selenium in aquatic systems. In: Meyer JS, Adams WJ, Brix KV, Luoma SN, Mount DR, Stubblefield WA, Wood CM, eds, Toxicity of Dietborne Metals to Aquatic Organisms. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp 263-274.
  • Arnold WR, Santore R, Cotsifas JS. 2005. Predicting copper toxicity in estuarine and marine waters using the Biotic Ligand Model. Mar Pollut Bull 50(12):1634-40.
  • Brix KV, DeForest D, Burger M, Adams WJ. 2005. Assessing the relative sensitivity of qauatic organisms to divalent metals and their representation in toxicity datasets compared to natural aquatic communities. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 11(6):1139-1156.
  • Brix KV, Toll J, Tear LM, DeForest D, Adams WJ. 2005. Setting site-specific water quality standards using tissue residue thresholds and bioaccumulation data. Part 2. Calculating site-specific selenium water quality standards for protecting fish and birds. Environ Toxicol Chem. 24(1):231-237.
  • DeForest D, Adams WJ, Brix KV. 2006. Comments on Vidal et al. (2005) and potential implications for tissue-based guideline/criteria development for selenium. SETAC Globe 7(2):26-27.
  • Di Toro DM, McGrath JA, Hansen DJ, Berry WJ, Paquin PR, Mathew R, Wu KB, Santore R. 2005. Predicting sediment metal toxicity using a sediment biotic ligand model: methodology and initial application. Environ Toxicol Chem 24(10):2410-2427.
  • Gouguet, R. 2005. Use of sediment quality guidelines in damage assessment and restoration at contaminated sites in the United States. In: Wenning RJ, Batley GE, Ingersoll CG, Moore DW, eds, Use of Sediment Quality Guidelines and Related Tools for the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments. Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC). ISBN 1-880611-71-6.
  • Toll J, Tear LM, DeForest D, Brix KV, Adams WJ. 2005. Setting site-specific water quality standards using tissue residue thresholds and bioaccumulation data. Part 1. Methodology. Environ Toxicol Chem. 24(1):224-230.


  • Arnold R, Adams W, Brix K, DeForest D. 2004. Dissolved organic carbon affects copper toxicity in marine waters
  • Brix KV, DeForest D, Cardwell RD, Adams WJ. 2004. Derivation of a chronic site-specific water quality standard for selenium in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 23(3):606-612.
  • Conner W, Gouguet R. 2004. Getting to Restoration. The Environmental Forum. 18-29. The Environmental Law Institute, Washington, D.C.
  • Keithly J, Brooker JA, DeForest D, Wu BK, Brix KV. 2004. Acute and chronic toxicity of nickel to a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca). Environ Toxicol Chem 23(3):691-696.
  • Muyssen BTA, Brix KV, DeForest D, Janssen CR. 2004. Nickel essentiality and homeostasis in aquatic organisms. Environ Rev 12:113-131.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest DK, and Brix KV. 2004. Copper and zinc in stormwater and streams at Seattle- Tacoma International Airport: Fate and effects. Platform presentation at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25th Annual Meeting, Portland, OR. November 14–18, 2004.


  • Adams WJ, Brix KV, Edwards M, Tear LM, DeForest D, Fairbrother A. 2003. Analysis of field and laboratory data to derive selenium toxicity thresholds for birds. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(9):2020-2029.
  • McGeer JC, Brix KV, Skeaff JM, DeForest D, Brigham S, Adams WJ, Green A. 2003. Inverse relationship between bioconcentration factor and exposure concentration for metals: implications for hazard assessment of metals in the aquatic environment. Environ Toxicol Chem 22(5):1017-1037.
  • Tobiason, S, DeForest DK, Marx K, Keithly J, Santore RC, Stubblefield WA, and Brix KV. 2003. Zinc risks from stormwater runoff at an urban airport. Platform presentation at the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24th Annual Meeting, Austin, TX. November 9–13, 2003.
  • Toll J. 2003. A risk assessor’s thoughts on water quality criteria development. In Reiley MC, Stubblefield WA, Adams WJ, DiToro DM, Hodson PV, Erickson RJ, Keating FJ, eds. Reevaluation of the State of the Science for Water Quality Criteria Development. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.


  • Gensemer RW, Naddy RB, Stubblefield WA, Hockett JR, Santore R, Paquin P. 2002. Evaluating the role of ion composition on the toxicity of copper to Ceriodaphnia dubia in very hard waters. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C 133(1-2):87-97.
  • Medina, MA, Doneker RL, Grosso N, Johns DM, Lung W, Mohsen MFN, Packman AI, Roberts PJ. 2002. Chapter 1: Surface water-ground water interactions and modeling applications. In: Chien CC, Medina MA, Jr., Pinder GF, Reible DR, Sleep BE, Zheng C, eds, Environmental modeling and management: Theory, practice and future directions. Today Media, Inc. for the DuPont Company, Wilmington, DE, pp 1-62.
  • Paquin PR, Gorsuch JW, Apte S, Batley GE, Bowles KC, Campbell PGC, Delos CG, Di Toro DM, Dwyer RL, Galvez F, Gensemer RW, Goss GG, Hostrand C, Janssen CR, McGeer JC, Naddy RB, Playle RC, Santore RC, Schneider U, Stubblefield WA, Wood CM, Wu KB. 2002. The biotic ligand model: a historical overview. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C 133(1-2):3-35.
  • Paquin PR, Zoltay V, Winfield RP, Wu KB, Mathew R, Santore RC, Di Toro DM. 2002. Extension of the biotic ligand model of acute toxicity to a physiologically-based model of the survival time of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to silver. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C 133(1 2):305-43. November 2002.
  • Santore RC, Mathew R, Paquin PR, DiToro DM. 2002. Application of the biotic ligand model to predicting zinc toxicity to rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and Daphnia magna. Comp Biochem  Physiol Part C 133(1-2):271-85.


  • Brix KD, DeForest D, Adams WJ. 2001. Assessing acute and chronic copper risks to freshwater using species sensitivity distributions for different taxonomic groups. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(8):1846-1856.
  • Di Toro DM, Allen HE, Bergman HL, Meyer JS, Paquin PR, Santore RC. 2001. Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 1. Technical basis. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(10):2383-96.
  • Santore RC, Di Toro DM, Paquin PR, Allen HE, Meyer JS. 2001. Biotic ligand model of the acute toxicity of metals. 2. Application to acute copper toxicity in freshwater fish and Daphnia. Environ Toxicol Chem 20(10):2397-402.
  • Zirbser K, Healy R, Stahl L, Tate W, Diamond J, Burton A, Johns DM, Scott J. 2001. Methods for collection, storage and manipulation of sediments for chemical and toxicological analyses: Technical manual. EPA-823-B-01-002. Office of Water, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.


  • Fairbrother A, Bix KV, DeForest D, Adams WJ. 2000. Egg selenium tresholds for birds: A response to J. Skorupa’s critique of Fairbrother et al., 1999. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 6(1):10.
  • Sullivan K, Martin DJ, Cardwell RD, Toll J, Duke S. 2000. An analysis of the effects of temperature on salmonids of the Pacific Northwest with implications for selecting temperature criteria. Sustainability Ecosystems Institute, Portland, OR.


  • Cardwell RD, Brancato MS, Toll J, DeForest D, Tear L. 1999. Aquatic ecological risks posed by tributyltin in United States surface waters: pre-1989 to 1996 data. Environ Toxicol Chem 18(3):567-577.
  • Damodaran N, Toll J, Pendleton M, Mulligan C, DeForest D, Kluck M, Brancato MS, and Felmy J. 1999. Cost analysis of TBT self-polishing copolymer paints and tin-free alternatives for use on deep-sea vessels. In: Champ MA, Fox TH, and Mearns AJ, eds. Treatment of Regulated Discharges from Shipyards and Drydocks. The Marine Technology Society, Washington, DC.
  • DeForest D, Brix KV, Adams WJ. 1999. Critical review of proposed residue-based selenium toxicity thresholds for freshwater fish. Human Ecol Risk Assess 5(6):1187-1228.
  • Fairbrother A, Brix KV, Toll J, McKay S, Adams WJ. 1999. Egg selenium concentrations as predictors of avian toxicity. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 5(6):1229-1253.
  • Meyer JS, Bobbitt JP, Debrey LD, Boese CJ, Bergman HL, Santore R, Paquin PR, Di Toro DM,  Allen HE. 1999. Binding of nickel and copper to fish gills predicts toxicity when water hardness varies, but free-ion activity does not. Environ Sci Tech 33(6):913-916.
  • Santore R, Driscoll CT. 1995. The CHESS Model for Calculating Chemical Equilibria in Soils and Solutions. In: RH Loeppert, AP Schwab, and S Goldberg, EDS, Chemical Equilibrium and Reaction Models. Soil Science Society of America, Inc., and American Society of Agronomy, Inc., Madison, WI.
  • Toll J. 1999. Elements of environmental problem-solving. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 5(2):275-580.


  • Toll J, Pavlou SP. 1998. Risk assessment modeling: Beyond exposure and effects. Human Ecol Risk Assess 4(4):939-949.


  • Murdoch MH, Chapman PM, Johns DM, Paine MD. 1997. Chronic effects of organochlorine exposure in sediment to the marine polychaete, Neanthes arenaceodentata. Environ Toxicol Chem 16:1494-1503.


  • McGroddy SE, Farrington JW, Gschwend PM. 1996. Comparison of the in situ and desorption sediment-water partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Sci Tech 30, pp 172-177.


  • Dakins ME, Toll J, Small MJ. 1995. Risk-based environmental remediation: Bayesian Monte Carlo analysis and the expected value of sample information. Risk Anal 16(1):67-79.
  • Johns DM, Dillon FS. 1995. Assessing toxicity in multi-metal contaminated sediment: Application of theoretical and investigative approaches. In: The utility of AVS/EqP in hazardous waste site evaluations. Proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the Coastal Resource Coordination Branch, Hazardous Materials Response and Assessment Division, NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA. pp 69-72.
  • McGroddy SE, Farrington JW. 1995. Sediment-porewater partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in three cores from Boston Harbor, MA. Environ Sci Tech 29, pp 1542-1550.


  • Dakins ME, Toll J, Small MJ, Brand K. 1994. Risk-based environmental remediation: Decision framework and role of uncertainty. Environ Toxicol Chem 13(12):1907-1915.


  • Toll J. 1992. Preliminary modeling assessment of the efficacy of a suicide gene system to contain bacteria and plasmids in the environment. J Environ Manag 36(2):135-149.


  • Johns DM, Ginn TC, Ciammaichella R. 1991. Neanthes long-term exposure experiment: further evaluation of the relationship between juvenile growth and reproductive success. EPA 910/9-91-026. Puget Sound Estuary Program, Seattle, WA.


  • Johns DM, Ginn TC. 1990. Development of a Neanthes sediment bioassay for use in Puget Sound EPA 910/9-90-005. US Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Seattle, WA.
  • Johns DM, Pastorok RA, Ginn TC. 1990. A sublethal sediment toxicity test using juvenile Neanthes sp (Polychaeta: Nereidae) In: Aquatic toxicology and risk assessment, fourteenth volume, ASTM STP 1124. Mayes MA, Baron MG eds. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA. pp 280-293.


  • Gentile JH, Pesch GG, Lake J, Yevich PO, Zaroogian G, Rogerson P, Paul J, Galloway W, Scott K, Nelson W, Johns DM, Munns W. 1988. Synthesis of research results: applicability and field verification of predictive methodologies for aquatic dredged material disposal. D-88-3. US Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS.
  • Johns DM, Gutjahr-Gobell R. 1988. Evaluation of the impact of dredged material disposal on the bioenergetics of a benthic species: field evaluation and laboratory simulations. D-88-3. US Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS.
  • Toll J. 1988. Will biotechnology improve biological controls? BioScience 38(9):588.


  • Gentile J, Johns DM, Cardin J, Heltshe J. 1984. Ecotoxicological testing: marine crustaceans In: Proceedings of 1983 MARTOX symposium, Ghent, Belgium.
  • Johns DM, Gutjahr-Gobell R. 1984. The impact of dredged material on the bioenergetics of the polychaete Nephys incisa In: Vernberg FJ, Calabrese A, Thurberg F, Vernberg WB, eds, Pollution and physiology of marine organisms. Academic Press, New York, NY.


  • Johns DM, Miller DC. 1982. The use of bioenergetics to investigate the mechanisms of pollutant toxicity in crustacean larvae In: Vernberg WB, Calabrese, A Thurberg F, Vernberg FJ, eds, Physiological mechanisms of marine pollutant toxicity. Academic Press, New York, NY. pp 261-288


  • Johns DM, Pechenik J, 1980. Influence of the water-accommodated fraction of No 2 Fuel Oil on energetics of Cancer irroratus larvae, Mar Biol 55:247-254,


  • Pechenik JA, Johns DM, Miller DC. 1979. Influence of No 2 Fuel Oil on survival and reproduction of four marine invertebrates. In: Jacoff FS, ed, Advances in marine research. EPA-600/9-79-03. US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. pp 135-156.